OIE Terrestrial Manual
Camelpox is a wide-spread infectious viral disease of Old World camelids. New World camelids are also susceptible. It occurs throughout the camel-breeding areas of Africa, north of the equator, the Middle East and Asia, and has an important economic impact through loss of production and sometimes death. Camelpox does not occur in the feral camel population of Australia. The camelpox virus belongs to the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus. The disease is characterised by fever, local or generalised pox lesions on the skin and in the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. The clinical manifestations range from inapparent infection to mild, moderate and, less commonly, severe systemic infection and death. The disease occurs more frequently and more severely in young animals and pregnant females. Transmission is by either direct contact between infected and susceptible animals or indirect infection via a contaminated environment. The role of insects in transmission has been suspected because the disease is often observed after rainfall. Camelpox virus is very host specific and does not infect other animals. Zoonotic camelpox virus infection in humans associated with outbreaks in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) was described in the north-eastern region of India during 2009. This was a single incident illustrating that camelpox is of limited public health importance.