Identification

Author

Stevens DL

Title

Streptococcal Toxic-Shock Syndrome: Spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment

Year

1995

Publication type

Article

Journal

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Created

2015-07-31 15:52:34.881696+00:00

Modified

2016-07-29 22:04:33.828287+00:00

Details

Volume

1

Number

3

Pages

69-78

Access

Language

English

URL ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/eid/vol1no3/adobe/stevens.pdf
DOI

10.3201/eid0103.950301

Accessed

2016-07-13

Extended information

Abstract

Since the 1980s there has been a marked increase in the recognition and reporting of highly invasive group A streptococcal infections with or without necrotizing fasciitis associated with shock and organ failure. Such dramatic cases have been defined as streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. Strains of group A streptococci isolated from patients with invasive disease have been predominantly M types 1 and 3 that produce pyrogenic exotoxin A or B or both. In this paper, the clinical and demographic features of streptococcal bacteremia, myositis, and necrotizing fasciitis are presented and compared to those of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection are also presented, with emphasis on the interaction between group A Streptococcus virulence factors and host defense mechanisms. Finally, new concepts in the treatment of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome are discussed.